CAD: Coronary Artery Disease

Coronary heart disease, Coronary artery disease (CAD) and Ischemic heart disease (IHD) are synonyms and includes a bunch of disease like stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death.

Coronary heart disease develops when the arteries that supply blood and oxygen to the heart itself gets blocked due to the cholesterol or other substances gets deposited on the inner side of the blood vessels called the plaque, this narrowing of arteries is called atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis. If it takes place in one of the major heart supplying arteries then it causes heart attack, stroke or peripheral arterial disease (PAD).

It reduces the elasticity of the blood vessels or narrows the inside area restricting the normal flow of the blood. It leads to the deficiency of oxygen in the heart muscles and causes chest pain also called angina.

Angina can be of two types:

Stable angina is the chest pain which occurs regularly with different activities. Unstable angina is when angina changes its intensity, also it can lead to myocardial infarction.

CAD weakens the blood muscles and leads to reduced functioning of heart in pumping the blood into the body, this is called heart failure. This also develops irregular heartbeat or arrhythmia.

Sometimes the plaque ruptures, gets stuck up in the artery somewhere and totally blocks the blood flow leading to oxygen cut off from that particular area causing permanently damaged heart muscle or scarring of them.

Causes: It is caused due to the cholesterol deposition on the inner lining of the blood vessels of the heart muscles.

Symptoms: Initial detection of the disease is done through its symptoms which are:
• shortness of breath (dyspnea)
• chest pain (discomfort in the chest and increasing into travel into the shoulder, arm, back, neck, or jaw)
• sweating
• nausea
• indigestion
• heartburn
• weakness

At risk: People with risk of getting IHD are/with:
• hypertensive
• smokers
• diabetic
• obese
• high blood cholesterol
• High resting heart rate
• Depression and stress
• Kidney disease
• Family history
• lack of exercise
• poor diet
• excessive alcohol intake
• 40 years old men and women are at great risk of developing this disease.

Diagnostic test: There are many test which help in the diagnosis of CAD:
• ECD or EKD: To measure electrical activity, rate and regularity of heartbeat.
• Chest X-ray: Pictures the heart, lungs and other organs of the chest.
• Echocardiogram: Ultrasound waves are used to picture the heart.
• Exercise stress test (EST): While walking on the treadmill, heart rate is measured.
• Cardiac catheterization: Checks the blockage in the heart arteries by inserting a thin, flexible tube through an artery in the groin, arm or neck to reach the heart to collect blood samples and to inject dye.
• Coronary angiogram: Injected dye is detected via X-rays point out the blocked areas in the arteries.

Prevention: To keep the disease at bay people need to control with medication and keep:
• Blood pressure
• Diabetes
• Cholesterol
• Proper diet
• Regular exercise
• Less alcohol intake

Management: Changes in the lifestyle is very helpful in living fit and healthy. Medications which help in managing the disease includes:
• Antiplatelet like aspirin
• Statins
• Beta blockers
• Calcium antagonists
• Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
• Nitroglycerin.

Some procedures are also done to increase the inner width of the arteries like percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) like coronary stent and angioplasty or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).

Tomorrow I Am Going To Do Something About My Cholesterol

If you’ve said that you’re like many other Americans who share a concern about the risk of coronary heart disease. But if you’ve never quite gotten around to doing something about it, keep reading. You’ll find answer to some of the most common questions that people have about cholesterol, and what you can do to control it. Happily, you’ll find that taking control of cholesterol is a lot easier and better tasting than you thought!

Why is cholesterol suddenly such a big deal?

If you’ve noticed that cholesterol has received increased attention over the past few decades, you’re right. In 1985, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health launched the national Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP). The program’s goal is the reduction of illness and death from coronary heart disease (CHD) by reducing the number of Americans with high blood cholesterol. The impetus behind the NCEP was smoking-gun evidence that lowering high blood cholesterol reduces the risk of coronary heart disease. As a matter of fact, a one-percent decrease in cholesterol yields a two-percent decrease in the chance of a heart attack!

Surveys also indicated that neither physicians nor the general public were adequately informed about the relationship between cholesterol and CHD. This led to an aggressive strategy of public and professional education. So yes, you have been hearing more about cholesterol, because there’s a lot more to hear.

What is coronary heart disease?

Over time, cholesterol as well as other blood born substances deposits themselves on the interior walls of the coronary arteries. When this build-up restricts the flow of blood through the arteries, too little oxygen reaches the heart. At best, CHD victims suffer chest pain (angina); at worst, a deadly heart attack – the kind that accounts for 30 percent of nearly two million deaths in the United States each year.

While elevated levels of blood cholesterol seriously increase a person’s risk of CHD, tacking on smoking and high blood pressure, the other main risk factors, multiplies that risk.

How many Americans have high cholesterol?

The American Medical Association published these figures based on NCEP estimates: Thirty-six percent of Americans have cholesterol levels that are high enough to warrant being under the care of a physician. About 102 million Americans ages 20 years and older are candidates for medical advice and intervention for high levels of blood cholesterol.

On top of that, there are millions more who should take immediate steps to bring their blood cholesterol levels into the “desirable” range.

In other words, if your cholesterol level could stand some tinkering, you’ve got something in common with better than one-out-of-every-two Americans!

What role does age play?

If you are between the ages of 20 and 39, the likelihood is one-in-five that your cholesterol level is too high. That rate jumps to one-in-two between the ages of 40 and 59. Over the age of 60, there’s a 60-percent chance that you have a problem.

Should you be screened for high cholesterol?

If you’re over the age of 20 you should! The NCEP suggests that you have the test done at least once every five years.

Your initial evaluation will determine your total cholesterol level and assess risk factors such as cigarette smoking, blood pressure and your personal as well as family health history. Often, cholesterol screening is carried out during the course of a routine physical examination, but advances in finger-stick testing procedures (where the finger is pricked in order to draw a minute quantity of blood) make widespread initial screening in non-clinical settings a practical and convenient alternative. Borderline-high or high levels of blood cholesterol found using the finger-stick method should be confirmed by your family physician.

The important thing is that you know your cholesterol level. Blood cholesterol is measured in milligrams per decilitre (mg/dl). Levels below 200 mg/dl are classified as “desirable blood cholesterol,” those between 200 and 239 mg/dl are “borderline-high blood cholesterol” and above 240 mg/dl are “high blood cholesterol.” At 200 and above, the risk of CHD steadily increases.

In general, the NCEP recommends that persons with blood cholesterol levels between 200 and 239 mg/dl adopt heart-healthy dietary habits and be retested annually. If additional risk factors are present, further testing will likely be required.

Persons with blood cholesterol levels above 240 mg/dl should have additional testing to determine a course of treatment in order to lower their blood cholesterol level.

Should children be screened?

The American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition believes that children with family histories of either early CHD or high cholesterol should be evaluated. “Early” means prior to the age of 50 in men and 60 in women.

For a variety of reasons, the Academy doesn’t believe in universal testing for children, but its view isn’t shared by all. Cory Servaas, MD, Director of the Children’s Better Health Institute, says that between 20 and 30 percent of the children under the age of 12 that her organization tests “have cholesterol levels higher than we think they should be… 180 mg/dl.” And she adds: “Since the screen test is inexpensive and easy to do, why not do it? Often we don’t know what the family history is in order to know whether a child should be tested.”

Is there really ‘good’ and ‘bad’ cholesterol?

Absolutely! But first, it’s important to understand that everyone, regardless of age, needs cholesterol. It’s vital for the formation of cell membranes and for the manufacture of bile acids. It’s also the chemical precursor of hormones such as progesterone, testosterone and estrogen. All cells in the body can manufacture cholesterol – 80 percent is produced by the liver – and there is no known physiological reason to supplement the body’s own cholesterol with dietary cholesterol.

In order for cholesterol to get from where it is manufactured – in the liver, for example – to where it is needed to support metabolism, it is transported as a lipoprotein. (Lipoprotein are substances that allow insoluble fats like cholesterol to travel around in water-based blood.) Low density lipoproteins (LDLs) carry cholesterol outbound from where it is manufactured, while high density lipoproteins (HDLs) transport it to the liver. At this point, the cholesterol can either be metabolized further, or passed into the intestine for elimination. Because HDLs limit the amount of cholesterol in the blood, they provide protection against dangerously high cholesterol levels. High levels of HDLs have been associated with a lower incidence of CHD.

If your cholesterol tests in the “high” range, or if you are “borderline-high” with additional CHD risk factors, your physician will do additional tests to establish the relationship of LDLs to HDLs.

What can you do to maintain a heart-healthy diet?

You don’t have to be a professional dietitian, or eat a boring diet in order to reduce or maintain a desirable cholesterol level. You also don’t have to carry a calculator around in order to add up milligrams of this or that. What you do need to know are some basic principles.

  • Eat less fat! There are three types of fat: saturated, polyunsaturated and monounsaturated. A heart-healthy diet requires that you reduce your consumption of saturated fats.

They’re found in meat and dairy products, as well as in commercially prepared baked goods made with coconut oil, and cocoa fat. Read the labels!

Instead of eating foods high in saturated fats, shift your emphasis toward complex carbohydrates (whole grains, fruits and vegetables), seafood and poultry sans skin. If you do eat meats select lean cuts and remove as much of the fat as possible before cooking. By cutting back on fat, you’ll also dramatically reduce calories, since fat contains twice as many calories as protein or carbohydrates.

  • Substitute polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats for those that are saturated. Polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats can actually help you to reduce your cholesterol. And recent studies conducted at the Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, indicate that monounsaturated fats lower LDL (bad cholesterol) levels while leaving HDL (good cholesterol) levels intact. Canola oil is a wonderful source of monounsaturated fat. It’s one of the principal cooking oils in Japan, a country widely regarded for its low rate of heart disease.
  • Reduce dietary cholesterol. Avoid organ meats altogether and eat fewer egg yolks.
  • Increase dietary fibre. Never before has fibre been easier to introduce into your diet. Lately we’ve been hearing a great deal about oat bran as a source of fibre, and for good reason. Studies indicate that oat bran, when eaten regularly, can reduce cholesterol by up to 19%.
  • Exercise! Exercise has shown to reduce the risk of CHD by increasing level of good cholesterol HDLs in the blood.
  • Stop Smoking! Exercise raises HDL levels, but smoking reduces them. Smokers run an added risk of CHD.

Do school lunch programs support heart-healthy dietary standards?

Jayne Newmark, national spokesperson for the American Dietary Association, cautions that school lunch programs are self-supporting, and therefore, sell foods that kids are most apt to buy. “Our job is to get kids to like foods that are heart-healthy. Today, you see a lot of hamburgers and French fries because that’s what kids like. We have a selling job to do. That’s why we’re trying to get nutrition into the curriculum. But education really starts at home and it can’t begin too soon,” says Newmark.

What are the additional benefits of a heart-healthy diet?

A high-fat and low-fibre diet has been linked to cancers of the colon and breast, as well as to diverticular disease, stroke, diabetes, high blood pressure and even osteoporosis. And if that isn’t enough, there’s always obesity to appeal to the vanity in us all.

How Heart Disease and Oral Health Are Connected

Many have likely heard from their dentist or others how oral health is essential for one’s overall health, with it being impossible for one to be totally isolated from the other. As of recent calculations, over 80 percent of Americans live with periodontal disease, with many usually never receiving a formal diagnosis.

This could be because a patient’s teeth might feel fine, thus he or she avoids the dentist, and doctor’s visits are rarely focused on a patient’s oral health. However, patients may be surprised to learn there could be a couple of links between heart disease and oral health.

For instance, recent studies indicate that if someone has mild or advanced gum disease, he or she has a greater chance of developing heart disease compared to someone who has healthy gums. As well, oral health can provide warning signs for doctors on a variety of conditions and diseases, such as those involving the heart.

How are They Related?

Heart disease and oral health are connected due to bacteria as well as other germs spreading from the mouth to different parts of the body through the bloodstream. If they spread to the heart, these bacteria could attach to any area with damage, thereby causing inflammation.

This could lead to illnesses like endocarditis, which is an infection of the heart’s inner lining. As well, other conditions like stroke or clogged arteries (atherosclerosis) have been linked with inflammation that is caused by bacteria of the mouth.

Which Patients are at Risk?

Individuals with long-term gum conditions-gingivitis, advanced periodontal disease-are the most prone to heart disease brought on by oral health, especially if it continues to be unmanaged or undiagnosed. The bacteria from gum infections can pass into the bloodstream and attach to blood vessels, thereby increasing one’s risk of developing cardiovascular disease.

However, even without clear gum inflammation, poor oral hygiene in and of itself has the risk of causing gum disease, the bacteria of which could also get into the bloodstream and cause raised C-reactive protein-a sign of inflammation within blood vessels, which increases the risk of developing heart disease and even stroke.

Symptoms

To prevent the risk of heart disease, patients can start by avoiding the onset of gum disease. Some common symptoms include the following:

  • Swollen, red gums that are sore to touch
  • Bleeding gums during eating, brushing, or flossing
  • Pus and other symptoms of infection around the teeth and gums
  • Receded gums
  • Bad breath (halitosis) or a bad taste
  • Teeth that feel loose or like they’re moving away from other teeth

Preventative Measures

Regular dental exams and good oral hygiene are the best ways of protecting yourself from developing gum disease. This includes brushing twice per day using a soft-bristled toothbrush and a fluoride toothpaste as well as flossing at least once daily.

Know the Details About a Cocaine Heart Attack and All Related Things

Cardiac arrest is the most popular name for a disruption of the regular availability of blood flowing to any given portion of the heart muscle; physicians and scientists refer to the condition more formally as a myocardial infarction. Without its required availability of oxygen-bearing blood, the heart muscular will die off easily, producing a situation that can cause serious heart damage or rapid death. Those who use cocaine build a variety of issues in their regular cardiovascular (heart and blood vessel) health that contributes greatly to their heart attack risks. These issues occur in the aftermath of both short- and long-term cocaine use and affect even casual customers of the drug.

Cocaine is a hunger controller and powerful stimulant drug that comes from the coca plant, from which it derives its name. It is used for a variety of instantaneous results that it makes, including delusions of supremacy, euphoria, improved energy, and performance. As these results wear off, uneasiness, pressure, and paranoia can set in, as well as higher body temperatures, an elevated pulse rate and blood pressure levels, and difficulty breathing. The increase in blood pressure levels alone can cause cardiac arrest in some cases; however, it can also cause unequal heart beat, the issue known as arrhythmia, which can also be deadly. Long-term usage of cocaine can not only cause to habit but also dehydration and a dry mouth, which can cause to damage being done to the teeth. Kidney failure, autoimmune illnesses like lupus, and heart attacks are other risks that come with the prolonged use of cocaine. Cocaine is especially damaging to the heart because it carries with it the possibility of occasional small heart attacks, plus it interferes with cocaine such as try out blockers that physicians use to treat heart attacks.

Cocaine’s Effects on the Heart

Cocaine use triggers a significant boost in the body’s availability of a chemical known as norepinephrine, which acts as a neurotransmitter and boosts the frequency of certain types of communication between nerve cells known as nerves. Specifically, norepinephrine generates improving levels of activity in the nerves of a process known as the supportive neurological system, which divisions throughout the body and helps provide unconscious control of the heart muscle and blood vessels, as well as a variety of additional vital organs. When cocaine enters the bloodstream, activation of the supportive neurological system generates heart-related changes in regular body function including blood pressure increases, heartbeat acceleration, and an improve in the amount of blood pumped by the heart in any given minute.

Signs of Cocaine Abuse

· Cocaine is a highly addictive substance. What starts off as seemingly harmless experimentation can easily become a potentially life-threatening habit.

· By recognising the symptoms of cocaine misuse, you can get your loved one the help they need before a habit takes hold.

· According to the scientists, cocaine may damage in stomach area, difficulty breathing, pressure, palpitations, dizziness, nausea and heavy sweating and unless a doctor knows what they are dealing with, the standard therapy for heart attacks such as beta-blockers and clot-busting cocaine, could be given with tragic results if the individual has been using cocaine.

· Cocaine improves blood pressure levels which in turn can improve the possibility of bleeding into the brain if the individual is given clot-busting drugs; beta-blockers can cause greater blood pressure levels and constricted arteries in individuals who have used cocaine.

· Experts say in a portion of customer’s cocaine can actually cause cardiac arrest.

· Cocaine-related chest pain in stomach area usually occurs within three-times of using the cocaine, but the cocaine can stay in the body for at least 18 times and proceed to cause issues.

· The new guidelines say cocaine customers with chest pain in stomach area should be monitored in an observation unit for nine to 12 hours.

While only about 1 % to 6 % of patients with cocaine-associated chest pain actually have a cardiac arrest, physicians maintain it is important for anyone with chest pain in stomach area to get checked out.

Cocaine Abuse Treatment and House Remedies

· First and foremost, the cocaine abuser must quit using the cocaine and other cocaine that accompany its use. Not many problems of cocaine use may perhaps be treatable at your home. The most frequent problems are psychiatric in nature.

· Anxiety, light agitation, hunger loss, insomnia, irritability, light panic disorder, light depression, and light headaches could probably be handled at your home by avoiding the use of the cocaine and observing the user.

· Runny noses, nose blockage, and brief nosebleeds can be also be cared for you at your home by avoiding the cocaine, helping the humidity of the air breathed in with hookahs and humidifiers, and direct nose pressure for 10 minutes to end the nosebleed. Implement a topical antibiotic such as bacitracin or petroleum jelly to help with the drying and crusting. Avoid nose picking.

· The chronic coughing chest pain of black non-bloody phlegm may perhaps be treatable again by cessation of cocaine smoking and other cocaine such as cigarettes or marijuana. Over-the-counter coughing medicines containing the ingredient guaifenesin, the active compound in Robitussin, plus improved water drinking may help.

· IV cocaine customers who proceed to use cocaine may lower their exposure to communicable illnesses and disease by not reusing or sharing needles. Cleansing the skin properly prior to the injection also decreases the possibility of disease.

How to Avoid Cocaine Abuse

Prevention should start early in the preadolescent years for all kids but particularly for those who are in danger. This consists of kids in families with a history of any addiction such as alcohol addiction and cocaine misuse. However simplistic the concept, teaching youngsters to say “no” to using cigarettes, liquor, and cocaine is an excellent protection tool. If we can keep your kids and our generations to come from the gateway drugs of nicotine, liquor, and marijuana, then we may be able to avoid the escalation to harder drugs such as cocaine and other

People between the ages of 18 and 45 are particularly susceptible to a cocaine-induced heart attack, according to a study published in 2007 in the journal “Clinical Medicine & Research.” These hazards connect with all cocaine customers in this age group, whether or not they have a previous record of heart- or blood vessel-related health issues.